If you just started learning English you first need to know some basic rules of the language. Developing a solid foundation in English grammar will not only help you create your own sentences correctly but will also make it easier to improve your communications skills in both spoken and written English.
Study all the lesson below and incorporate your learning into your speaking.
SINGULAR AND PLURAL NOUNS
A NOUN names a person, place, things or idea. It gives names of concrete and abstract, things in our lives. As babies learn “mom”, “dad” or milk as their first word. Nouns should be the first topic. When you study a foreign language.
*For the PLURAL FORM of most nouns, add s
Examples: bottle-bottles sticker-stickers pencil-pencils
*For NOUN that end in ch, x, s, or s sounds, add es
Examples: box-boxes watch-watches
*for NOUN ending in f or fe, change f to v and add es
Examples: wolf-wolves leaf-leaves
*Some NOUNS have different Plural Forms.
Examples: child-children mouse-mice man-men
*NOUNS ending in vowels like y or do not have definite rules.
Examples: baby-babies kidney-kidneys stereo-stereos
toy-toys potato-potatoes memo-memos
*A few NOUNS have the same singular and plural forms.
Examples: sheep-sheep species-species
Choose the correct form of the noun in each sentence.
1. I have three (child, children)
2. There are five ( man, men) and one (woman, women).
3. (Baby, babies) play with bottles as toys.
4. I put two big (potato, potatoes) in the lunch box.
5. A few men wear (watch, watches).
6. I put a (memo, memos) on the desk.
7. I saw a (mouse, mice) running by.
8. There are few (bus, buses) on the road today.
COUNT NOUNS VS. NON-COUNT NOUNS
COUNT NOUNS– can be counted as one or more.
Examples: pen, computer, bottle, spoon, desk, cup, television, chair, shoe, finger, flower, camera, stick, balloon, book, table, comb, etc.
*Take an s to form the plurals.
Examples: pens, computers, bottles, spoons, desks, cups, televisions, chairs, shoes, fingers, flowers, cameras, sticks, balloons, books, tables, combs, etc.
*Work with expressions such as (a few, few, many, some every, each, these and the number of)
Examples: a few pens, a few computers, many bottles, some spoons, every desk, each cup, these televisions, the numbers of chairs, a few shoes, a few fingers, many flowers, some cameras, every stick, each balloons, these books, the numbers of tables, many combs, etc.
*Work with appropriate articles (a, an, or the).
Examples: a pen, the computer, a bottle, the spoon, a desk, the cup, a television, the chair, a shoe, the finger, a flower, the camera, a stick, the balloon, a book, the table, a comb, etc.
*Do not work with much (for example, you would never say much pens or much computers. It should be many pens or many computers)
NON-COUNT NOUNS are the nouns cannot be counted. They usually express a group or type. Generally cannot be pluralized.
Examples: water, word, ice, air, oxygen, English, Spanish, traffic, furniture, milk, wine, sugar, rice, meat, flour, soccer, sunshine, etc.
Examples: Sugar is sweet. I drink milk.
The sunshine is beautiful. He eats rice.
We watch soccer together. She does not speak much Spanish.
Do you see any traffic on the road? The wine is very old.
*Do not work with expressions such as (these, those, every, each, either or neither).
Choose all the non-count nouns in the following list:
Wine, student, pen, water, wind, milk, computer, furniture, cup, rice, box, watch, potato, wood.
POSSESIVE NOUNS are used to indicate ownership. Possesive nouns usually are formed by adding an apostrophe (‘) and s.
Examples: John’s book, Kerry’s car, Grandmas’ mirror.
*When a noun is plural and ends in s, just add an apostrophe(‘)
Examples: Jesus’ disciples, My parents’ house, The teachers’ lounge.
*If two people own one thing, add the apostrophe and s to the second person only.
Examples; John and Mary’s son. David and Abigail’s wedding, Tom and Jinn’s car.
*If two people own separate things. Add the apostrophe and s for each person.
Examples: Susan’s and Beth’s Books, Jean’s and Dan’s pants, Ben’s and Jim’s offices.
Which of the following is not correct?
1. Dr. Hunts has a new computer.
2. Dr. Hunt’s new computer is working well.
3. Dr. Hunts’ computer is new.
A PRONOUN takes the place of a noun.
Mary is one of the heads of the Toji Corporation. Mary works with Mr. James and Mr. James’ son Tom. Mr. James and Mr. James’ son are expert in biochemistry. Mary, Mr. James and Tom researched and invented a drug for cancer treatment.
Mary is one of the heads of the Toji Corporation. She works with Mr. James and his son Tom. He and his son Tom are experts in biochemistry. They researched and invented a drug for a cancer treatment.
*PERSONAL PRONOUNS- refers to a person.
Examples: I go to School, You are a student, They are Filipinos, He works here, He gave her food.
*The word “it” refers to a person.
Examples: I drank it. It is big. They cut it into halves.
*Memorize the personal pronouns:
1. Singular Subject Singular.
2. Object Singular Reflexive.
3. Plural Subject Plural Object.
4. Plural Reflexive.
FIRST I, me, myself, we, us, ourselves.
SECOND You, your, yourself, you, you, yourselves
THIRD Male, he, him, himself, they, them, themselves
FORTH Neutral, it, it, itself, they, them, themselves
1. I an apple __ has delicious.
2. You look tired ___ should rest.
3. She is a teacher I gave ___ a book.
4. He saw the movie __ was fun.
5. ___ work together.